Sunday, 30 September 2012

The French Definite Article



 There are more French definite articles than English ones, and they are used more often.

Because articles determine the gender of nouns, it is important to memorize them.

In this lesson we are going to see the different ways French definite articles are used.

In French every noun has a gender, so each item is either masculine or feminine.

The definite article which precede a masculine noun is le, and the definite article which precede a feminine noun is la.

eg: le sac (bag)
eg: la fleur (flower)

" l' " is used for nouns commencing with a vowel or a mute H, regardless of gender.

eg: l'école (school)
eg: l'hotel (hotel)

There are some exceptions: le héro, le huit, le onze, le haricot, la hollande, la haine

The plural definite article is les

eg: les chaises (chairs)
eg: les outils (tools)

Some nouns have two genders

eg: un enfant, une enfant (child)
eg : un camarade, une camarade (peer)
eg: un malade, une malade (an ill person)

and also some professions

eg: un concierge, une concierge (porter)
eg: un dentiste, une dentiste (dentist)
eg: un collégue, une collégue (colleague)

Some nouns change meaning when they change gender

eg: le livre (book)
eg: la livre (money or weight)

eg: le somme (nap)
eg: la somme (sum)


The definite article is used with:

Specific nouns

eg: le verre est sur la table (the glass is on the table)

eg: la valise est lourde (the suitcase is heavy)

Nouns in the general sense

eg: le travail est bon pour la santé (Work is good for your health)
eg: l'homme est un être complexe (man is a complex being)

Abstract nouns

eg: l'amitié est inestimable (friendship is priceless)

eg: la beauté ne fait pas tout (beauty doesn't do everything)

Topics, subjects

eg: la mondialisation est un mythe (globalization is a myth)

eg: il étudie l'histoire à l'université ( he studies history at university)

tip: name of languages are all masculine

eg: le français, le russe, le chinois

Nouns of substances

eg: la bière est une boisson alcoolisée (beer is an alcoholic beverage)

eg: l'or est un métal précieux (gold id a precious metal)

Group of people, animals and thing

eg: les fleurs font un cadeau parfait (flowers make a perfect gift)

eg: les ouvriers dans cette usine travaillent 10 heures par jour (workers in this factory work 10 hours a day)

eg: les chiens sont les amis de l’homme ( dogs are men's friend)
 
Days of the week when it expresses a habitual occurrence.

eg: le lundi je joue au football (on  mondays I play football)

eg: je vais chez ma Grand-Mère le dimanche après-midi ( I go to my Grandmother on sunday afternoons)

But

eg: je travaille mardi (it is not habitual so there is no article)
                                                  I am working Tuesday

eg: je pars en voyage samedi (it is not habitual so there is no article)
                                             I am going on holiday Saturday

Dates

eg: je pars le 18 avril (I am leaving on the 18th of april)

eg: elle retourne le 20 juin (she is coming back on the 20th of juin)

Numbers
 

eg: mon numéro de téléphone est le 37 97 60 (My telephone number is 37 97 60)

eg: le numéro gagnant est le 44 (the winning number is 44)

Titles

eg: Monsieur le Directeur (Mr the Director)

eg: madame le Maire (Mrs the Mairess)

However, where kings and queens are concerned, the French leave the article out

eg: François I ( François the First)
François Premier

eg: Henry IIIV (Henry the Eighth)
Henry Huit
 
With "Monsieur"

eg: le monsieur du premier revient demain ( the man on the 1st floor comes back tomorrow)

but the article is never used with "madame" and "mademoiselle"

Quantity associated with price

eg:  les pommes sont à 3 euros le kilo ( the apples are 3 euros for a kilo)

eg: l'essence vaut 2 euros 20 le litre (petrol cost 2 euros 20 per litre)
 
Body parts

eg: elle baisse la tête (she lows her head)

eg: je me lave les mains ( I wash my hands)

Countries, regions, islands, mountains and rivers

eg: la France est un joli pays
(france is a beautiful country)

 eg: la Cornouaille se situe dans le sud-est de l'Angleterre
(Cornwall is situated in the north-east of England)

 eg: la Corse est une destination touristique
(Corsica is a tourist place)

eg: le mont Blanc est le plus haut sommet d'Europe occidentale
eg: Mont Blanc is the highest peak in Western Europe

Possessive pronouns

eg: ce n'est pas ton livre, c'est le mien (it is not your book, it is mine)

eg: il est de retour parmi les siens (he is back among his love ones)

Superlatives

eg: c'est l'endroit le plus dangereux de la région( it is the most dangerous place in the area)
eg: le Mont Blanc est le plus haut sommet d'Europe Occidentale (Mont Blanc is the highest peak in Western Europe)

Repetition
 

In French, the article usually has to be repeated before each noun
eg: il faut que tu redonnes le cahier, les stylos et la trousse
eg: mets l'assiette, le verre et le bol sur la table

Tips: - While pronouncing the " l' " with a noun, we must link the two, to make it sound as if it is just one word
eg: l'étoile sounds like (létoile)

- The final consonant of “ les “ is pronounced " z " in front of nouns starting with a vowel or a mute " h ".

eg: les " z" artistes
eg: les " z " enfants

but
les héros
les haricots

French Poems for Children

 
 
 La Coccinelle et la goutte d'eau
 The Ladybird and the Droplet
 
 
 
 Une petite goutte d'eau s'ennuyait fermement. Une coccinelle marchait non loin,
A small droplet was very bored. Not far away a ladybird was walking,
 
quand elle décida tout à coup de se refaire une beauté. Elle se mira alors dans une flaque
when it decided  suddenly to make itself beautiful again. It then gased at its reflection in a puddle
 
à ses pieds.
 at its feet.
 
-  Que veux-tu ? Chuchote la petite goutte d'eau.
- What do you want ? Whisper the small droplet.
 
-  Seulement me regarder; aujourd'hui, c'est mon anniversaire, un point de plus
-  Only to look at myself; today, it is my birthday, another spot 
 
sur mon dos.
on my back.
 
-  Ta robe est très jolie aux couleurs flamboyantes.
- Your dress is very pretty in blazing colours.
 
-  Toi aussi, tu es claire et pure comme de l'eau de roche.
-  You too, are crystal clear.
 
-  Peut-être, mais bientôt je ne serais plus, écrasée ou bue, je ne serais plus.
-  Maybe, but soon I will be no more, crushed or drunk, I will be no more.
 
-  Alors invisible sur ma carapace, tu agrandiras le petit point qui n'a jamais grandi.
-  Then invisible on my shell, you will enlarge the little spot which has never grown.
 
-  D'accord et ainsi nous resterons amies.
-  All right and this way we shall remain friends.
 
-  Oui amies pour cette vie
-  Yes friends for this life
 
Et depuis inséparables, leur solitude n'est plus.
-  And  since inseparable, their solitude is no more.
 
 
Almaya
 
 
 
 
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 
Halloween va venir
Halloween is going to come
 
 
Halloween va venir.
Halloween is going to come.
 
Sorcières et montres vont se réveiller.
Witches and monsters are going to wake up.
 
Pendant que moi, je vais lire
While I, I am going to read
 
Bien au chaud, près de la cheminée,
In the warmth, near the fireplace,
 
Ils seront là,
They will be there,
 
A la fenêtre,
At the window,
 
Je ne m'en soucierais pas.
I will not care about it.
 
C'est plutôt eux qui vont être
It's them more than anything who are going to be
 
Bien embêtés car ils ne pourront pas entrer.
Well annoyed because they will not be able to enter.
 
 
Author Unknown
 
 
 
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 


 
Sorcières et Fantômes
Witches and Ghosts
 
 
Hier près de la rivière,
Yesterday near the river,
  
J'ai rencontré une Sorcière.
I met a witch.
 
Mal fagotée, mal coiffée,
Badly dressed, with untidy hair
  
Elle était plongée dans ses pensées.
She was deep in her thoughts.
 
une sorcière, ce n'est pas bête!
A witch, it is not stupid!
 
Au contraire, c'est une experte!
On the contrary, she is an expert!
 
Pour faire les potions magiques,
 To make magic potions,
 
Elles doivent être des scientifiques.
They have to be scientists.
 
 
 
Les fantômes sont ses amis,
Ghosts are her friends
 
Ils chantent, ils dansent, ils rient.
They sing, they dance, they laugh.
 
Va venir le grand jour d'Halloween,
The big day of Halloween is going to come,
 
Ils vont tous se réunir sur la colline.
They are all going to meet on the hill.
 
 
 
C'est la fête des sorcières,
 It is the witches'party,
 
Eteignez vos lumières!
 Switch off your lights!
 
Les enfants ont des frissons,
The children shudder,
 
Allumez vos potirons!
Switch on your pumpkins!
 
 
Author Unknown
 
 
 
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 
L'automne
Autumn

On voit tout le temps, en automne,
We see all the time, in autumn,
 
Quelque chose qui vous étonne,
Something which amazes us,
 
C'est une branche tout à coup,
It is a branch suddenly,
 
Qui s'effeuille dans votre cou.
Which drops its leaves in your neck.
 
 
 
C'est un petit arbre tout rouge,
It is a red little tree,
 
Un, d'une autre couleur encor,
One, of another colour yet,
 
Et puis partout, ces feuilles d'or,
And everywhere, these gold leaves,
 
Qui tombent sans que rien ne bouge.
Which tumble when everything else is still.
 
 
 

Nous aimons bien cette maison,
We like this house,

Mais la nuit si tôt va descendre!
But the night so early is going to fall!

Retournons vite à la maison
Quick, lets return home

Rôtir nos marrons dans la cendre.
To roast our chestnuts in the ash.
 
 

Lucie Delarue-Mardrus
 
 
 
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 
Le miroir
The mirror
 

 Dans un miroir
In a mirror

Est né un oiseau
A bird is born
 
Un oiseau tout bleu
All blue bird
 
Avec des plumes vertes.
With green feathers
 
Un oiseau tout jaune
All yellow bird
 
Avec des plumes rouges.
With red feathers
 
Un oiseau tout violet
All purple bird
 
Avec des plumes oranges.
With orange feathers
 
Cet oiseau est né
This bird is born
 
Dans le miroir d'une mare
In a mirror of a pond
 
Où l'arc en ciel prenait son bain.
Where the rainbow was bathing
 
 
 
 Michel Cordeobeufs
 
 
 
 
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 
Ma meilleure amie
My best friend
 
 
Ma meuilleure amie est belle et gentille
My best friend is beautiful and nice
 
 Elle fait rire
She laughed 
 
Elle adore jouer avec moi et moi aussi d'ailleurs
She loves to play with me and me as well
 
Et nous aimons jouer avec les autres!
And we like to play with others!
 
Je les adore mes amies
I love my friends
 
 
 Author Unknown
 


 
 
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 
Le cheval
The horse
 
 
Un petit trot
A little trot
 
Suivi, d'un petit galop,
Followed by a canter
 
Voici l'allure des chevaux
This is the way the horses go
 
Brouter,
Grazing
 
Manger,
eating
 
Voilà, la paix dans le pré
Here, peace in the meadow
 
 Et, hop sur le dos
And, hop on the back
 
Pour y voir un peu plus haut!
To see a little higher!
 
De nos amis les chevaux
From our friends the horses
 
 
 
Hannequart Margot et justine Moreaux
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 
 
Ma famille
My family
 
 
Je suis une fille
I'm a girl
 
Qui aime la vanille
Who likes vanilla
 
Je suis un garçon
I'm a boy
 
Qui aime le poisson
Who likes fish
 
Je suis une maman
I'm a mum
 
Qui aime les marrants
Who likes fun
 
Je suis un papa
I'm a dad
 
Qui aime le chocolat
Who likes chocolate
 
Je suis une mamie
I'm a grandma
 
Qui aime le riz
Who likes rice
 
Je suis un papy
I'm a grandpa
 
Qui aime la vache qui rit
Who likes laughing cow
 
Et mon copain
And my friend
 
Qui aime rien
Who doesn't like anything
 
 
 
Celiane Ferrin

 


 
 
 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 
 
La rentrée
Back to school

 
Un oiseau chantonne
A bird is humming
 
Un air de Mozart
A  Mozart aria
 
Que le vent d'automne
That the wind of autumn
 
Emporte au hasard.
Blows away at random.
 
Bernard et Nicole,
Bernard and Nicole,
 
La main dans la main,
Hand in hand,
 
Ont pris de l'école
have taken to school
 
Le joli chemin.
The pretty path.

On voit sous les pommes
We can see under the apples
 
Crouler les pommiers.
 Crumbling the apple trees.

Les crayons, les gommes
  pencils, erasers

Sortent des plumiers.
Out of pencil cases.
 
Le ciel est morose
The sky is gloomy
 
Il verse des pleurs...
It sheds tears....
 
Mais Rosa-la-rose
But Rosa-la-rose
 
Est toujours en fleurs.
 is always in bloom.

 


Jean-Luc Moreau




 



Saturday, 29 September 2012

 
The French Indefinite Article
 
 

 There are three indefinite articles in French.

Un is used in front of masculine nouns, and une is used in front of feminine nouns.

Everything in French is either masculine or feminine, so it is important to learn the article which goes in front of every noun in order to memorize them until eventually it become natural.

eg: un bateau (a boat)

eg: une ville(a town)

The French Indefinite Article for plural nouns is des. It refers to an unspecified quantity of people or things.

eg: des personnes (people)

eg: des fleurs (flowers) in French

Some nouns have two genders

eg: un adulte, une adulte (adult)
eg : un enfant, une enfant (child)
eg: un partenaire, une partenaire (partner)

professions

eg: un fonctionnaire, une fonctionnaire (civil-servant)
eg: un pianiste, une pianiste (pianist) eg: un chimiste, une chimiste (chimist)

Some nouns change meaning when they change gender

eg: un tour (a turn, trick)
eg: une tour (tower)

eg: un voile (veil)
eg: une voile (sail)

The French Indefinite articles are used to introduce

New concrete nouns

eg: il y a un couteau dans le tiroir

eg: je porte une robe noire et blanche

Abstract nouns

eg: elle a une énergie incroyable (she has an unbelievable energy)

eg: il a une peur incontrôlable de l’orage (he has an uncontrollable fear of thunder)

Plural nouns

eg: la ville des jardins fleuris (the city of the gardens bloom)

eg: j’ai acheté des chocolates (I bought some chocolates)
 
The french indefinite article is omitted

 with nouns following the verbs

 (être) to be, (demeurer) to stay, (devenir) to become, (élire) to elect, (nommer) to appoint, (rester) to stay when designating a profession, nationality or religion.

eg: elle est anglaise (she is English)

eg: il est devenu médecin (he became doctor)

eg: il a été élu Maire (he has been elected maire)

eg: il a été nommé inspecteur (he has been nominated inspector)


but

 when “c’est” is used, the article is not omitted

eg: c’est une vendeuse

eg: c’est un catholique


however

when the noun is modified by an adjective for example, the indefinite article is used

eg: il est un Maître sévère (he is a strict teacher)

eg: elle est une étudiante consciencieuse (she is a conscientious student)

after “ quel ” or “ quelle”

eg: quel désastre (what a distaster)

eg: quelle chaleur (how hot)


Before nouns in apposition

eg: la Bouillabaisse, plat Provençal (Bouillabaisse, provencal dish)

but

when the noun is modified, for example by an adjective, the article is not omitted

eg: la Bouillabaisse, un célèbre plat Provençal (Bouillabaisse, famous provencal dish)

with the following words

(sans, sur, sous, en, par, avec, ni…ni)

eg: sans lait

eg: sur commande

eg: sous verre

eg: en porcelaine

eg: par erreur

eg: ni crayon…..ni papier

in lists

With a list of nouns, the article is often omitted

eg: j’ai acheté pommes, poires, abricots et bananes

eg: j’ai vu chats, chiens, lapins et souris

eg: ramasser crayons, livres et papiers

Tips:

The liaison is made between un, une and words beginning with a vowel or a mute H

eg: un "n" oeuf
eg: une "n" erreur

and also between des where the last consonant is pronounced "z" and words beginning with a
vowel or a mute H'

eg: des "z" amis
eg: des "z" hommes

Friday, 28 September 2012

The Partitive Article
 


 French partitive articles are usually used with nouns which cannot be counted to indicate a part of the designated item.

The forms of the partitive article are:

Masculine singular

du, de l’

Feminine singular

de la, de l’

plural

des

The form “ de l’ “ is used in front of a vowel or a mute “ h ”.
des ” is used in front of plural nouns regardless of gender.

eg: du beurre (some butter)

eg: de la glace (some ice)

eg: de l’eau (some water)

eg: des fruits (some fruits)

Use of the French partitive articles

With mass nouns in front of which “some” or “any” would be used

eg: pourriez-vous me donner du chocolat? (could you give me some chocolate?)

eg: je préfèrerais de la confiture (I would rather have some jam)

eg: elle a de l’argent (she has some money)

With items used in plural

eg: je voudrais des légumes (I would like some vegetables)

eg: achète des allumettes, s’il te plait (buy some matches, please)


Where in English there would be no partitive articles

eg: il mange du raisin et des oranges (he eats grapes and oranges)
eg: j’ai des amis en Italie (I have friends in Italy)

With abstract nouns

eg: Ils ont du courage (they are courageous)

eg: il faut de la patience pour y arriver ( you must be patient to achieve it)

Before the verb  “ faire “

eg: je fais du sport (I do sport)

eg: je fais de la musique (I play musique)

The partitive articles “ du ” is used in front of names of musician, painter and author

eg: je lis souvent du Baudelaire (I read Baudelaire)

eg: nous écoutons du Chopin (I listen to Chopin)

The partitive articles “ du “  “ de la ”  and “ des “ are replaced by “ de “ or “ d’ “

In a negative sentence

eg: il ne porte pas de cravate

eg: il ne veut pas d’ananas

However, sometimes a negative sentence can suggest an affirmative idea, and in this case partitive articles are used.

eg: n’avez-vous pas des collègues dans la region (don’t you have any colleagues in the area?)

eg: elle ne prend pas de la glace, mais du gateau (she does not take any ice cream, but cake)


“ des “ is replaced by  “ de “  when the noun is preceded by an adjective

eg: nous avons recontré des amis (we met some friends)

eg : nous avons recontré de vieux amis (we met some old friends)

 “ du “, “ de la ”, “ des ” become “ de ” and “ de l ” becomes “ d’ ” with an expression of quantity
eg:  Je voudrais du fromage (I would like some cheese)
je voudrais un morceau de fromage (I would like a piece of cheese)

eg: je voudrais des tomates (I would like some tomatoes)
je voudrais un kilo de tomates (I would like a kilo of tomatoes)
 
tips:

How to differentiate

de la  as a partitive article and de la as a preposition with a definite article

eg: j’ai mangé de la confiture (I eat some jam)

eg: je me suis servi de la confiture pour faire le gateau (I use jam to make the cake)

put it  as a negative sentence

eg: je n’ai pas mangé de confiture  (de la becomes de – it is a partitive article)

eg: je ne me suis pas servi de la confiture pour faire le gâteau (de la does not change – it is a preposition with the définite article la)

du as a partitive article and du a definite article

eg: il boit de l’eau

eg: il boit l’eau de la rivière

negative

eg: il ne boit pas d’eau (de l’ becomes d’ – it is a partitive article)

eg: il ne boit pas l’eau de la rivière (de la does not change – it is a définite article)

Thursday, 27 September 2012

French Verbs 
 

French verbs may seem difficult at first to English speaking people who try to learn French, but it is not as complicated as it appears.


The verb is the most important word in a sentence. It indicates that an action is taking place, has taken place or will take place.

The most fundamental difference between French and English verbs is that French verbs have more endings.

Many French verbs are regular and conform to a particular pattern, however there are also a great number of common irregular verbs which have to be learned separately because they do not comply to any typical verb patterns.
Below are the names given in the French grammar for each of the tenses.


Verb (trouver- to find)





  Indicative                                      Indicatif          3rd Person Singular 

Present                                                               Présent                                            il trouve


Perfect                                                         Passé composé                                    il a trouvé


Imperfect                                                          Imparfait                                             il trouvait


Future                                                                   futur                                                 il trouvera


Pluperfect                                                    Plus-que-parfait                                     il avait trouvé


Future perfect                                              Futur antérieur                                       il aura trouvé




Conditional                                             Conditionnel


Present                                                             Présent                     il trouverait
                                                                                                                                                                                              


Subject Pronouns


                                       Singular                                     Plural                         

First                                    Je (I)                                        Nous (we)
Second                              Tu (you)                                    Vous (you)
Third (masculine)             Il (he)                                         Ils (they)
           (feminine)           elle (she)                                       elles (they)
                                         on (one)


Note: The pronoun “tu” is used to address a child, a friend, a relative or a close associate.
The pronoun “vous” is used to address someone you do not know well or someone who is older than you.
Vous” is also used to address friends or acquaintances if there are two or more of them.



The pronoun “on” means (one, they, we or people)

eg: on prend nos repas à la cantine
                                                                                                                                                  
eg: en France, on parle Français

“ils” means “they” and refers to male or male/female people, animals or things.

eg: Où sont Paul et Marie?  ils jouent dans le jardin.


Tenses


Simple tenses are made of stems to which endings are attached

Compound tenses are made of the auxiliary verbs (avoir) or (être) plus a past participle




 Moods
 
The indicative mood expresses a statement

The conditional mood indicates a wish or a possibility



The conjugation

The conjugation indicates the tense, the mood and the person of the verb.

French verbs are categorized into 4 groups

1) The first group include verbs whose infinitive ends in (er) except (aller – to go).

eg: donner (to give)
eg: regarder (to watch)
eg:  parler (to speak)

2) The second group is for verbs whose infinitive ends in (ir) and present participle in (issant) 

eg: finir – finissant (to finish – finishing)
    eg: choisir – choisissant (to choose – choosing)
eg: remplir - remplissant (to fill – filling)

3) The second group is for verbs whose infinitive ends in (er)
eg: vendre (to sell)
eg: attendre (to wait)
eg: descendre (to go down)

a) In this group there are also the stem-changing verbs. Their root changes depending of   the subject pronoun, but the endings are the same as regular verbs.

eg: prendre (to take)
eg: apprendre (to learn)

4) The third group concerns all other verbs

eg: partir (to leave )
eg: ouvrir (to open)
eg; conduire (to drive)

Even irregular verbs have some recognizable patterns

eg: devoir (to have to), recevoir (to receive), apercevoir (to perceive)
eg: craindre (to fear), plaindre (to pity), joindre (to join)
eg: naître (to be born), paraître (to seem), connaître (to know)

But some are completely irregular and have to be memorized

eg: être (to be)
eg: avoir (to have)
eg: allez (to go)

Tuesday, 25 September 2012

Facts About France



France is one of the largest country in Europe. Her neighbouring countries are Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Spain. It is also bordered by the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
_ Capital: Paris

_Language: French

_ Currency:  Euro

_ Population: 65,073,482

_ Highest Mountain: Mont Blanc, in the Alps. It is the highest mountain in Europe.

_ Longest River: La Loire


France enjoys a variety of weather.  The North is often cool and wet contrary to the south which is usually dry and warm. The summers along the Mediterranean are very hot.

France is famous for its food and French people like to eat

- Croissants
- Pain au Chocolat
- Baguette
- Escargots
- Cheese




French Numbers
 


 Cardinal numbers

Learn how to count in French. French Cardinal numbers indicate a numerical quantity.

0 – zéro

1 - un or (une)

2 – deux

3 – trois

4 – quatre

5 – cinq

6 – six

7- Sept

8 – huit

9 – neuf

10 – dix

11 – onze

12 – douze

13 – treize

14 – quatorze

15 – quinze

16 – seize

17 – dix-sept

18 – dix-huit

19 – dix-neuf

20 – vingt

21 – vingt et un or (une)

22 – vingt-deux

23 – vingt-trois

24 – vingt-quatre

25 – vingt-cinq

26 – vingt-six

27 – vingt-sept

28 – vingt-huit

29 – vingt-neuf

30 – trente

31 – trente et un or (une)

32 – trente-deux, etc

40 – quarante

41 – quarante et un or (une)

42 – quarante-deux, etc

50 – cinquante

51 – cinquante et un or (une)

52 – cinquante-deux, etc

60 – soixante

61 – soixante et un or (une)

62 – soixante-deux

70 – soixante-dix

71 – soixante et onze

72 – soixante-douze

73 – soixante-treize

74 – soixante-quatorze

75 – soixante-quinze

76 – soixante-seize

77 – soixante-dix-sept

78 – soixante-dix-huit

79 – soixante-dix-neuf

80 – quatre-vingts

81 – quatre-vingt-un or (une)

82 – quatre-vingt-deux, etc

90 – quatre-vingt-dix

91 – quatre-vingt-onze

92 – quatre-ving-douze, etc

100 – cent

101 – cent un or (une)

102 – cent deux

110 – cent dix

111 – cent onze

154 – cent cinquante-quatre

200 – deux cents

201 – deux cent un or (une)

202  - deux cent deux

1000 – mille

1001 – mille un or (une)

1100 – mille cent or onze cents

1101 – mille cent un or onze cent un

1500 – mille cinq cents or quinze cents

2000 – deux mille

2001 – deux mille un

2101 – deux mille cent un

10 000 – dix mille

1 000 000 – un million

1 000 000 000 un milliard


Masculine and feminine
 

un becomes une when it precedes a feminine noun

eg: une chaise

eg: vingt et une personnes


Hyphens in cardinal numbers

A  Hyphen is used for compound cardinal numbers less than 100 – except for those which are linked by the conjunction et (21 – 31 – 41 – 51 – 61 – 71)

eg: vingt et un

eg: quarante et un

eg: soixante et onze

Cardinal numbers of 100 and above are not joint to other numbers by a hyphen

eg: six cent treize

eg: deux cent dix-huit

plurals in cardinal numbers

When vingt and cent are multiplied, they become plural

eg: quatre vingts

eg: cinq cents

and when they precede non-numeral nouns

eg: quatre vingts professeurs

eg: cinq cents élèves


but if these numbers are followed by  other numerals there is no plural

eg: quatre-vingt-deux

eg: cinq cent deux


except if those numerals are millions and milliards

eg: quatre vingts millions d’euros

eg: cinq cents milliards de dollars

mille is never plural

eg: mille maisons

eg: huit mille habitants

Tip

cent and mille are not preceded by un as in English

Cardinal numbers are used for monarchs, except for “first”

Henri IV
Henri quatre

Louis XVI
Louis seize

But

François Premier

Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers indicates the position. The main attribute of the ordinal numbers is the “-ième”  ending
which is found in every case except for 1st

deux – deuxième
huit – huitième
dix-sept - dix-septième
quarante et un - quarante et unième
cent – centième
cent cinquante - cent cinquantième

Exceptions

first
un – premier
 une – première

Second
deuxième can be replaced by second or seconde
deux – deuxième or second (masculine)
deux – deuxième or seconde (feminine)

fifth
cinq – cinquième (u is added)

ninth
neuf – neuvième (f becomes v)

Friday, 21 September 2012

Talk about your Family in French

The Family is one of the first topics children learn in French.
First, because it is easy to talk about, and also because it is a subject that is most likely to come into the conversation.
Here is a poster representing the closest people to you.



There is a lot of information you can give about your family, even at a primary level.

such as:


j'habite avec mes parents



j'ai un frère et une soeur 



voici mon cousin



mes grands-parents s'appellent Jacques et Line


 You can ask the children to draw a picture of members of their family and to talk about them.

for example:

-Who they are
- What is their name
-How old are they
-Who do they live with.......

Friday, 14 September 2012

Sing along with traditional French songs

Children enjoy singing traditional French songs during lessons.  They have so much fun while doing it, that they learn French without realising it.

Choose easy popular songs that do not have too many words and are easy to remember. And encourage the children to sing along with them.

The most well-known French children song is Frère Jacques. This song can be sung in a round. The first group begins to sing, and when it comes to the lyrics “dormez-vous”, the second group starts singing the first set of words “Frère Jacques”.
Kids love it!! 

 
 
Another well liked French folk song is Au Clair de la Lune. What is nice about this song is that some children also learn to play it on the recorder. So, you can have a group singing the lyrics while another group plays the tune.
 
 
 
 
One of my favourites is Sur le Pont d’Avignon. This song is often enacted. The children sing it while holding hands and going round in a circle. When the lyrics say “les beaux messieurs font comme ça” the boys pretend to take their hat off and bow, and when the words say “les demoiselles font comme ça” the girls hold their skirts and do a curtsy. It is a lovely song to perform in a school play in front of mums and dads.

 
 
 
Once the children are familiar with a song, you can ask them to illustrate a scene from it.

Tuesday, 11 September 2012

Simple Tips to Improve Your French Vocabulary

 Learning French language is a great idea to widen your vocabulary. People love learning French vocabulary because it helps you to explore new foreign language. There are many reasons why many people are eager to learn the language. It allows you to compete efficiently globally.

Knowing French language will aid you to increase your job opportunities. In addition to that, it will also increase your appreciation of the society and cultures. You can also develop your creative and critical cognitive skills. And when it comes to literary masterpieces, French language is the best option.

If you are starting to learn the French vocabulary and you want to improve your vocabulary skills, then you might need the help of this article. This will provide you simple tips to build French vocabulary in just a short time.

You have to study French words in logical groups like names of countries, greetings and clothing because this makes the learning easier. You can use the French dictionaries and textbooks that provide you simple lectures about the language. Use also a notebook where you can take down the terms you have encountered each day. To make it easier for you, arrange the topic you want to learn. For instance, you want to learn about automobile terms, just focus on different types of mobiles. In case you want to learn about marketing terms, you can read about business French. You can remember terms better than separated words.

You can also learn French faster by studying terms that are the same to English. For instance, study the terms that end in “ble” in French and English. You can also study terms that end in “tion” in both English and French. In addition to that, make sure you also learn the pronunciation, gender nouns and spelling differences. Let us take this as an example, you know the difference of the terms “apartment” and “aviator”. In English, the word “apartment” is the counterpart of the word “aviateur” in French. Learning about the relationships and their differences will help you speed your vocabulary skills. You can use textbooks or other references that could serve as guidance in getting new French words and their relationship to the English language.

Of course, you should include in your learning process the word families. Study the relationships of nouns, verbs or adverbs in French. For instance, you researched the terms “ecouter” and “ecouter” which come from the base word “to listen”. If you find it hard to understand, you can use French-English dictionary.

If possible, participate in French vocabulary seminars or training centers. Although you can use different flashcards or textbooks, it is till important to deal with other people who are also willing to learn French. This will urge you to use the terms in actual and to know more different strategies on how to speak French correctly.

Increasing your French vocabulary will help make your language skills better. The best thing is that you can use it in different situations like in job opportunities, travel and competition.



Hope you have learned the simple tips to improve your French vocabulary.